Price: Varies4.0 Hours
By the end of this module, the reader should be able to:
Describe the three different classes of controlled substances most commonly misused: indications, risks, benefits, common adverse effects, and alternatives for opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants and stimulantsDefine medication tolerance, dependence and addictionDiscuss general guidelines for safe prescribing practicesDiscuss pain management, including both acute and chronic pain and special considerations needed for controlled substance use in the elderly and pregnant populationsReview the special circumstances involved in palliative medicine and end-of-life careReview the prevention, screening, and signs of potential substance abuse and addictionDescribe appropriate response to and current treatment options for substance abuse and addictionReview the New York State and federal requirements for prescribing controlled substances
According to the 2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health conducted by the US Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 3.3 million people age 12 and older were current misusers of prescription pain medications, and an estimated 11.5 million people misused pain medications in the past year. The most commonly misused medications were hydrocodone products. 62.3% of those who misused pain medications in the last year replied that they misused due to physical pain and 53.3% obtained the last medications they used form a relative or friend while 36.8% got through a valid prescription. In 2016, an estimated 1.8 million people aged 12 and older had a prescription pain medication use disorder. The current misusers of tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives in 2016 was estimated at 2 million, 1.7 million, and 0.5 million respectively (SAMHSA, 2017). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that opioids, both prescription and heroin, killed more than 42,000 people in the United States in 2016, a new record high (CDC, 2017). Currently, according to the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), nurse practitioners, nurse midwives, and physician assistants are legally permitted to prescribe schedule II-V medications within the state of New York (DEA, 2018).